Programming language Computer programming


Paradigm Multi-paradigm: object-oriented, procedural (imperative), functional, structured, reflective
Designed by Guido van Rossum
Developer Python Software Foundation
First appeared 20 February 1991; 30 years ago[2]
Stable release 3.10.2 14 January 2022; 13 days ago
Preview release 3.11.0a4 Edit this on Wikidata / 14 January 2022; 13 days ago
Typing discipline Duck, dynamic, strong typing; gradual (since 3.5, but ignored in CPython)
OS Windows, Linux/UNIX, macOS and more
License Python Software Foundation License
Filename extensions .py, .pyi, .pyc, .pyd, .pyo (prior to 3.5), .pyw, .pyz (since 3.5)
Major implementations CPython, PyPy, Stackless Python, MicroPython, CircuitPython, IronPython, Jython
Dialects Cython, RPython, Starlark
Influenced by ABC, Ada, ALGOL 68, APL, C, C++, CLU, Dylan, Haskell, Icon, Java, Lisp, Modula-3, Perl, Standard ML
Influenced Apache Groovy, Boo, Cobra, CoffeeScript, D, F#, Genie, Go, JavaScript, Julia, Nim, Ring, Ruby, Swift


Python is an interpreted high-level general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its use of significant indentation. Its language constructs as well as its object-oriented approach aim to help programmers write clear, logical code for small and large-scale projects.

Python is dynamically-typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly, procedural), object-oriented and functional programming. It is often described as a "batteries included" language due to its comprehensive standard library.

Guido van Rossum began working on Python in the late 1980s, as a successor to the ABC programming language, and first released it in 1991 as Python 0.9.0. Python 2.0 was released in 2000 and introduced new features, such as list comprehensions and a cycle-detecting garbage collection system (in addition to reference counting). Python 3.0 was released in 2008 and was a major revision of the language that is not completely backward-compatible. Python 2 was discontinued with version 2.7.18 in 2020.

Python consistently ranks as one of the most popular programming languages.


Mark Lutz - Learning Python 5th edition

[[Mark Lutz - Learning Python, 5th Edition - 2013.pdf]]

Building Skills in Python